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May 28, 2011

Plant Patents Bad for Innovation?

I don't actually think so, but that's the conclusion of this story:

Roses Puncture the Case for Plant Patents (The Daily Yonder)

And the study it cites:

Did Plant Patents Create the American Rose? (NBER)

The idea behind plant patents, really all patents, is to encourage innovation. The concept is that if you provide developers of new varieties the means to protect and profit from their creations, you provide an incentive to put in the effort it takes to create a new variety.

This article cites a research project by the National Bureau of Economic Research, however, that claims that this has not actually been the case with plant patents, using rose varieties as an example. I don't actually agree with their conclusion, or the reasons behind it (and yes, I have a serious bias here: without plant patents I wouldn't have a job, a point I will return to). But allow me to discuss their reasons for a bit:

The number of roses registered by U.S. breeders actually went down when the plant patent law was enacted in 1931.

This is not surprising at all. Without a plant patent law, breeders depend on novelty and availability to drive purchases. For example, say you're a breeder, and you've spent $1,000 to develope three new varieties, A, B, and C. A is clearly the best, so you name it, say 'Agatha', and you sell it to your friendly neighborhood nurseryman for $1,000. He pays you that because he's hoping to attract customers as the only nursery featuring 'Agatha'. That may be the last you see out of it, though, because your nurseryman can now propagate it all he wants, and so can any one else who buys it from them. Pretty soon there really isn't any incentive for anyone to pay for anything but the propagation, because the nurseryman, his customers, and any other nurseries who propagated it from his customers, now have it. So you, the breeder, need to keep eating, so you release the next best, B, name it 'Brilliant', and sell it to your friend the nurseryman. This time he might not pay you quite as much, seeing as it's not as good a variety, say $750. And the same thing plays out--people buy 'Brilliant', people swap cuttings, rival nurseries get cuttings, and pretty soon you can buy 'Brilliant' anywhere. They buy it even though 'Agatha' was better because their only source of information on it is the nurseryman, who has no incentive to tell them anything about it and will probably hype the hell out of it, because he's got an exclusive for the moment. Finally, in dire need of cash, you release C, called 'Carbuncle', which kind of a crummy variety. The nurseryman thinks maybe a few people could be conned into buying, so he grudgingly gives you $250. And the cycle repeats. As word gets out, the fact that 'Carbuncle' is lousy becomes common knowledge, and pretty soon no nursery is growing it. 'Brilliant' seems to be okay, but eventually 'Agatha' is proven superior, and within a few years its really the only one of your varieties being grown.

Bottom line:
3 varieties released
1 variety proved useful
$1,000 made by breeder

Now say you're the same breeder, with the same selections, but you live in an alternate reality where there IS a plant patent law. You look over your three selections, decide A is clearly superior, name it 'Agatha', and march down to the patent office, prepare vast acres of paperwork, and get yourself a plant patent on it. Then you go to the nurseryman, offer him not just access to 'Agatha', but exclusive rights to propagate and sell it. This is worth a lot more to him than just a brief headstart, so he pays you, say, $10,000. You have enough money, that you even roll it into expanding your breeding program. You don't bother releasing B and C, because they don't have anything A didn't, and it's not worth the cost of patenting them.

Bottom line:
1 variety released
1 variety proved useful
$9,000 made by breeder

Alternately, if you felt like getting more involved, you could have sold various licenses to a bunch of nurseries, licensed propagation rights to them on a yearly basis, or charged them a per plant royalty (both of these are attractive in that they give you a continuous revenue stream to live off of).

Patenting will virtually always lower the number of varieties released, because there is no longer an incentive to try to sell as many varieties as possible as the next hot thing. Not only does the breeder win on this deal, but so does the public, who has fewer crap varieties to wade through. (The nurserymen might arguably have come out the worst of it, but there are probably efficiencies for them, as they don't need to maintain huge numbers of varieties or keep up with constant changes). The fact that good varieties have value more in keeping with their usefulness means there's an incentive to spend money and time to pursue innovative breeding procedures to produce truly outstanding varieties. Without patents, the best tactic is to throw as many things against the wall as you can and hope that a few stick. With patents, the best tactic is to release a good variety, so that its value has longevity, either to prompt a large upfront payment or years of royalties.

"Luther Burbank did very well without protection"

The above quote is from Fiorello LaGuardia, in the congressional debate over the plant patent act. It is also not especially true. While Burbank achieved widespread renown, which no doubt helped him sell varieties at a higher price than otherwise, he was never wildly rich. Considering that the man released dozens of varieties still grown a hundred years later (and many hundred others, see above), saying that he did "very well" when he seems to have managed at best a middle class life style, partially supported by public grants, seems a bit of a stretch. Also, his operation was always small, topping out at 22 acres, with a very small staff (sometimes just himself). Imagine what a man like that might have created had he been able to make enough money to pour back into his efforts and expand? We might still be benefiting from it.

Most early plant patents were roses

Even if you agree with the conclusion that fewer varieties is equal to less innovation, the study refers only to roses. They are extrapolating from this because of the sheer number of rose patents. However, the purpose of the plant patent law was not primarily to promote innovation in roses. In actuality, it was World War I food shortages and demands from farm states that triggered the pressures that resulted in the plant patent law, although some nurseries who produced ornamentals were certainly among the later proponents (these tended to be the large nurseries with connections to major breeders). The real motivation behind the law was to prompt innovation in food crops.

Most patents belonged to large breeding/nursery operations

Again, we come back to the question of what is actually produced that is of value. Because patents provide an incentive to produce better varieties rather than merely more varieties, the advantage goes to programs that can afford to take financial risks to produce truly superior varieties, by developing programs with real depth, rather than simply name seedlings. Yes, it raises the barriers to entry for small operations, but the reason why those barriers are higher is because the standard for varieties is higher. Isn't that what we want?

The decline in imported varieties after the enactment of the Plant Patent Act can be attributed to other causes

While that may be true, all that the authors establish is that any real effect cannot be measured in terms of the number of imported varieties because there are way too many confounding factors: they cite the Great Depression and World War II. To that I would add the great upswing in public plant breeding which came from the influx of returned soldiers, and federal dollars, to the Land Grant Universities. These produced public plant varieties which decreased the need for both imported varieties and domestic private breeding.

But this brings me to another point: Though most of the world did not have a plant patent law, the lack of plant IP protection in a world where other nations have it means that foreign breeders don't want their varieties to enter your country. This hurts both the breeder and the country without the protections. China is a pretty good current example. Although the government has recognized the disadvantage this presents for Chinese growers and have taken steps to enforce the laws that exist, for years no sane breeder has knowingly let his varieties into China, where they would rapidly and illegally be reproduced without significant recourse on his part.

Most new roses in the 1930's and 40's were bred from European roses

Um, so? Unless you could show that that continued to be true after the breeding programs that plant patents built had been long established, that's a meaningless fact. It gives the impression (as does the whole thing, really) that the authors really don't know much about plant breeding.

Less than one fifth of new varieties are patented

This is another point where I come back to the fact that roses are a really bad example to use here. A rose breeding program does not require the collection of highly accurate data. While there are certainly traits which can be better bred with real data, the critical property of roses can be assessed from a very small number of plants. Plus roses are attractive and nice to have around. This encourages a large number of hobby breeders. You don't see a lot of, say, hobby wheat breeders. A better measure might be the number of useful varieties patented...but useful becomes harder to quantify with an ornamental.

Old data

All the claims made in this paper are made on data 1970 and earlier. Much of it much earlier. Quotes like "Patented roses have no lived up to expectations," date to the early 1940's, when the patently would only have had at best a slight effect on breeding programs. Breeding programs are decades-long endeavors, and the impacts of the plant patent law are felt on a long term basis. Why would they basically discount half of the time since the law was passed? Some of the comments make me wonder if they are actually writing in the past... I find it very hard to believe that there has been no increase in private sector research expenditures on seed-propagated crop breeding since the passage of the PVP act in 1970. The Alston and Venner paper they cite acknowledges that the proportion of wheat acreage (once again, making sweeping conclusions based on a single crop) sown to privately bred varieties increased from 3% to 30% in the 20 years after the act passed, but that yield did not increase appreciably, and so they claim that PVP was used primarily as a marketing tool. I don't quite understand that claim, because a check with FAOSTAT shows an increase of almost 50% since the passage of the act. I know that's a simplistic measure, but the method they use to computer yield, on a state by state basis, seems to me to have certain issues as well...

The FAOSTAT info doesn't show big increases until the mid-80's, but like I said...breeding takes time. One wouldn't expect to see immediate effects of the law. Alston and Venner acknowledge this by saying that development time is 5-12 years, but this is only generation...the real impacts of re-investment in programs would come in compounding over generations.

But anyway, I'm off on another paper now...

I am a private breeder. My value to my employer comes in producing patented varieties. So obviously I have a vested interest here. My job would not exist without a plant patent law. Nor would the jobs of a vast majority of U.S. breeders. All that said, I am a huge proponent of public breeding programs. We need more of them. They need more money. They both build up the foundations on which private programs are built, and they keep up competition on private programs by preventing the development of virtual monopolies. However I think current developments towards the patenting and restricting of public program germplasm has severely damaged that system, and turn it into something frighteningly like the private programs, and losing focus on the scientific advancement and germplasm development that is a critical role for those programs. I don't blame the breeders in charge of those programs—breeding programs are expensive, and that money has to come from somewhere. I blame the institutions and governments that have starved those programs of funds.(But that's another rant...)

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189 Comments:

At 6/08/2011 07:46:00 PM, Blogger Rick said...

Phil, I am with you on PPs, but am becoming strongly opposed to the use of utility patents in plant protection. Rather than encouraging innovation, UPs as they are currently being used at least in ornamentals and vegetables stifle innovation.

 
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An Italian crew member with a serious leg injury has now been airlifted to the mainland, hours after a South Korean couple were rescued.

Three people are confirmed dead.

The captain has been arrested on suspicion of causing deaths. He denies claims by prosecutors that he left the ship before evacuation was complete.
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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the United Kingdom's largest metropolitan areas; the Greater Manchester Urban Area has a population of 2.2 million, whilst the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester has an estimated population of 2.6 million. The demonym of Manchester is Mancunian and its local authority is Manchester City Council.
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Cyathus is a genus of fungi in the Nidulariaceae, a family collectively known as the bird's nest fungi. They are given this name since they resemble tiny bird's nests filled with "eggs". The "eggs", or peridioles, are firmly attached to the inner surface of this fruiting body by an elastic cord of mycelia known as a funiculus.
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At 2/02/2012 02:35:00 AM, Blogger Google said...

Chew Stoke is a small village and civil parish in the Chew Valley, in Somerset, England, about 8 miles (13 km) south of Bristol. It is at the northern edge of the Mendip Hills, a region designated by the United Kingdom as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and is within the Bristol/Bath green belt.
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At 2/02/2012 02:37:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

The River Chew is a small river in England. It merges with the River Avon after 17 miles (27 km) forming the Chew Valley.
The spring from which the Chew rises is just upstream from Chewton Mendip. The river flows North West from Chewton Mendip through Litton, Chew Valley Lake, Chew Stoke, Chew Magna and Stanton Drew. The river passes under the A37 at Pensford almost making the old church and pub garden into an island.
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After several months of negotiations — starting several days after the 2011 NBA All-Star Game — with former basketball agent Jason Levien and managing owner Joshua Harris, Thohir became part of a consortium that would go on to buy the Philadelphia 76ers, an NBA team; the consortium also included actor Will Smith, his wife Jada Pinkett Smith, and Levien
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At 2/06/2012 03:39:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Prince Louis of Battenberg (1854–1921) was a German prince related to the British Royal Family. After a career in the United Kingdom's Royal Navy lasting over forty years, in 1912 he was appointed First Sea Lord, the professional head of the British naval service. He took steps to ready the British fleet for combat as World War I began, but his background as a German prince forced his retirement at the start of the war when anti-German feeling was running high.
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At 2/07/2012 08:46:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

The Great Baltimore Fire raged in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, on Sunday, February 7, and Monday, February 8, 1904. 1,231 firefighters were required to bring the blaze under control. It destroyed a major part of central Baltimore, including over 1,500 buildings covering an area of some 140 acres (0.57 km2).
One reason for the fire's duration was the lack of national standards in fire-fighting equipment. Although fire engines from nearby cities (such as Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. as well as units from New York City, Virginia, Wilmington, and Atlantic City) responded, many could not help because their hose couplings could not fit Baltimore's hydrants.
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At 2/07/2012 09:11:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Super Bowl XLVI was an American football game between the American Football Conference (AFC) champion New England Patriots and the National Football Conference (NFC) champion New York Giants to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 2011 season. Each team was vying for its fourth Super Bowl victory. The Giants beat the Patriots 21–17. The game was televised by NBC. Super Bowl XLVI was the 46th annual championship game of the modern-era NFL and was played at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana.
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At 2/10/2012 11:42:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Big Butte Creek is a 12-mile (19 km) long tributary of the Rogue River located in the U.S. state of Oregon. It drains approximately 245 square miles (630 km2) of Jackson County. The north fork of the creek begins on Rustler Peak and the south fork's headwaters are near Mount McLoughlin. They meet near Butte Falls, and Big Butte Creek flows generally northwest until it empties into the Rogue River about 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Lost Creek Dam (William L. Jess Dam). Big Butte Creek's watershed was originally settled over 8,000 years ago by the Klamath, Upper Umpqua, and Takelma tribes of Native Americans.
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At 2/24/2012 04:00:00 AM, Blogger BEAN said...

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At 2/24/2012 12:30:00 PM, Blogger DUNCAN said...

The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane is a West End theatre in Covent Garden, in the City of Westminster, a borough of London. The building faces Catherine Street (earlier named Bridges or Brydges Street) and backs onto Drury LaneRoyalty Free Music LoopsBath Body Care

 
At 3/26/2012 04:09:00 PM, Blogger Kaylene Norris said...

I strongly agree with your post. This is some very interesting information. I really enjoy reading about the different perspectives and how it affects the world.

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At 4/10/2012 03:50:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

In 1783 the first explanatory dictionary of Russian by Russian Academy of Science appeared. During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries Russian went through the stage (known as "Golden Age") of stabilization and standardization of its grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation, and of the flourishing its world-famous literature, and became the nationwide literary language.
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At 4/13/2012 07:27:00 PM, Blogger aloalo said...

Four major European geographic regions meet in Slovenia: the Alps, the Dinarides, the Pannonian Plain, and the Mediterranean. Although on the shore of the Adriatic Sea, near the Mediterranean, most of Slovenia is in the Black Sea drainage basin.
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At 4/18/2012 05:24:00 AM, Blogger klimatici said...

Employees are assigned to pre-established groups in the κλιματιστικά proportions: bad grades / results - 10% below average - 20%, average - 40% above average - 20%, exclusive - 10%.

 
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At 4/18/2012 04:47:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

On June 13, 2009, the Associated Press reported that in response to new UN sanctions, North Korea declared it would progress with its uranium enrichment program. This marked the first time the DPRK has publicly acknowledged that it is conducting a uranium enrichment program.[44] In August 2009, former US president Bill Clinton met with Kim Jong-il to secure the release of two US journalists, who had been sentenced for entering the country illegally.
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At 4/18/2012 05:01:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

Summer tends to be short, hot, humid, and rainy because of the southern and southeastern monsoon winds that bring moist air from the Pacific Ocean. Typhoons affect the peninsula on an average of at least once every summer.[54] Spring and autumn are transitional seasons marked by mild temperatures and variable winds and bring the most pleasant weather. Natural hazards include late spring droughts which often are followed by severe flooding. There are occasional typhoons during the early fall.
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At 4/19/2012 04:49:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. Out of these village alliances, small kingdoms developed. The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated.
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At 4/19/2012 06:11:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and to the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.
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At 4/22/2012 01:40:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

The Egyptians did have an aberrant period of some form of monotheism during the New Kingdom, in which the pharaoh Akhenaten abolished the official worship of other gods in favor of the sun-disk Aten. This is often seen as the first instance of true monotheism in history, although the details of Atenist theology are still unclear.
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At 4/22/2012 03:13:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

The Early Dynastic period began with the unification of Egypt around 3000 BC. This event transformed Egyptian religion, as some deities rose to national importance and the cult of the divine pharaoh became the central focus of religious activity.[108] Horus was identified with the king, and his cult center in the Upper Egyptian city of Nekhen was among the most important religious sites of the period. Another important center was Abydos, where the early rulers built large funerary complexes
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At 4/23/2012 04:21:00 PM, Blogger aloalo said...

On 3 April 1922, Stalin was named the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Lenin had appointed Stalin the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, which gave Stalin considerable power. By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating and out-maneuvering his rivals within the party, Stalin became the undisputed leader of the Soviet Union and, by the end of the 1920s, established totalitarian rule. In October 1927, Grigory Zinoviev and Leon Trotsky were expelled from the Central Committee and forced into exile.
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At 4/24/2012 04:01:00 PM, Blogger yeu_yeu said...

Recreational logging and mapping of other people's access points has become known as wardriving. Indeed, many access points are intentionally installed without security turned on so that they can be used as a free service. Providing access to one's Internet connection in this fashion may breach the Terms of Service or contract with the ISP. These activities do not result in sanctions in most jurisdictions; however, legislation and case law differ considerably across the world.
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Construction began immediately of a single modest court near the parish church and in 1356 it was ready to house the Master and two fellows.[7] The college's statutes were drawn up in 1356.[8] The united guild merged its identity with the new college, which acquired all the guild's lands, ceremonies, and revenues.[5][6] The grandest of these was the annual Corpus Christi procession: a parade through the streets to Magdalene Bridge, the host carried by a priest and several of the college's treasures carried by the Master and fellows, before returning for an extravagant dinner.
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At 4/28/2012 09:53:00 PM, Blogger HT said...

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At 4/29/2012 03:34:00 PM, Blogger aloalo said...

On 5 April 1842, the missionaries asked for the protection of France after the rebellion of a part of the local population. On 5 April 1887, the queen of Uvea (on the island of Wallis) signed a treaty officially establishing a French protectorate. The kings of Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi also signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888.
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At 4/29/2012 06:37:00 PM, Blogger aloalo said...

Charleston languished economically for several decades in the 20th century, though the large military presence in the region helped to shore up the city's economy. The Charleston Hospital Strike of 1969 was one of the last major events of the civil rights movement and brought Ralph Abernathy, Coretta Scott King, Andrew Young and other prominent figures to march with the local leader Mary Moultrie. Its story is told in Tom Dent's book "Southern Journey." Joseph P.
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At 4/30/2012 06:56:00 PM, Blogger aloalo said...

The atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth averages 101.325 kPa, with a scale height of about 8.5 km.[3] It is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with trace amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules. The height of the troposphere varies with latitude, ranging between 8 km at the poles to 17 km at the equator, with some variation resulting from weather and seasonal factors.
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At 5/03/2012 04:44:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

After World War II, New Zealand joined Australia and the United States in the ANZUS security treaty, although the United States later, until 2010, suspended the treaty after New Zealand banned nuclear weapons. New Zealand is part of the intelligence sharing among the Anglosphere countries, the UKUSA Agreement. New Zealanders enjoyed one of the highest standards of living in the world in the 1950s, but the 1970s saw a deep recession, worsened by oil shocks and the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community.
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At 5/03/2012 05:42:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

New Zealand has a strong presence among the Pacific Island countries. A large proportion of New Zealand's aid goes to these countries and many Pacific people migrate to New Zealand for employment.[83] Permanent migration is regulated under the 1970 Samoan Quota Scheme and the 2002 Pacific Access Category, which allow up to 1,100 Samoan nationals and up to 750 other Pacific Islanders respectively to become permanent New Zealand residents each year.
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At 5/03/2012 05:53:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

Since 1876, various councils have administered local areas under legislation determined by the central government.[105][109] In 1989, the government reorganised local government into the current two-tier structure of regional councils and territorial authorities.[110] The 249 municipalities
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At 5/03/2012 06:16:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

New Zealand's geographic isolation for 80 million years[145] and island biogeography is responsible for the country's unique species of flora and fauna. They have either evolved from Gondwanan wildlife or the few organisms that have managed to reach the shores flying, swimming or being carried across the sea.[146] About 82 percent of New Zealand's indigenous vascular plants[n 9] are endemic, covering 1,944 species
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At 5/04/2012 05:26:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

Red-tailed Black Cockatoos measure around 60 centimetres (24 in) in length. The male's plumage is all black with a prominent black crest made up of elongated feathers from the forehead and crown.The bill is dark grey . The tail is also black with two lateral bright red panels. Females are black with yellow-orange stripes in the tail and chest,and yellow grading to red spots on the cheeks and wings. The bill is pale and horn-coloured.
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At 5/04/2012 12:07:00 PM, Blogger aloalo said...

Three U.S. Presidents have been elected while living in Illinois—Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and Barack Obama. Additionally, President Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only US President actually born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan, Land of Lincoln, which has been displayed on its license plates since 1954.
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At 5/05/2012 06:42:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

The system of governance was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (and who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India), and lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states, the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,
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At 5/05/2012 10:48:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.[81][82] In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885
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At 5/06/2012 10:41:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

The rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It created an income stream, via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC. This allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address several criticisms, internal scandals, the use of performance enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympics.
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At 5/12/2012 09:11:00 AM, Blogger aloalo said...

British Empire had expanded to its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population.[82] The rise of Irish Nationalism and disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Rule led eventually to the partition of the island in 1921,[83] and the Irish Free State became independent with Dominion status in 1922, while Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.[84] The Great Depression (1929–32) occurred when the UK had not recovered from the effects of the war, and led to hardship as well as political and social unrest.
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Three U.S. Presidents have been elected while living in Illinois—Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and Barack Obama. Additionally, President Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only US President actually born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan, Land of Lincoln, which has been displayed on its license plates since 1954.
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