.comment-link {margin-left:.6em;}

Fruit Blog Header.jpg

My cherimoya, shortly before it became smoothie fodder.

Archive of past images



Recent Cultivar Releases

Current Work in Pomology



Atom Feed

Powered by Blogger

Add to Technorati Favorites

May 5, 2005

Fruits of the Incas

I came across a great book a while back, and amazingly it turns out that its available free online: Lost Crops of the Incas: Little Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation, from National Academies Press. It's an amzingly thorough overview of just about every imaginable endemic crop of the Andes (every one I could imagine, actually, and then some). You can read it online for free, or you can buy the PDF (or, if you're really cheap and/or bored, you can print each of the single page JPEGs individually).

While European colonists adopted many native crops in their expansion over the globe, to a remarkably large extent imported crops replaced the indigenous, despite in many cases being poorly adapted to the local conditions. There are probably as many reasons for this as there are crops, not least among them being that when your colonial overlords tell you to grow something different, you probably do (at least where they're watching).

Ultimately, the Spanish and the rest of the world saw the advantages of many of the Andean vegetables (potatoes, peppers, tomatoes and beans being the most obvious examples). The fruits, however, have remained in relative obscurity. While many continue as staples of local markets and widely consumed among indigenous populations, very few have made a significant impact on the world fruit industry. I'm hardly qualified to comment on the exact reasons for this, but part of it probably is the result of their adaptation to a very unusual set of climatic conditions. The Andes combine being smack-dab on the equator with extremely high altitude, so the plants tend to have an extremely low chilling requirement combined with a sensitivity to extremes of both heat and cold. This particular sort of adaptation might also limit geographic expansion of the crops' ranges, because movement east or west (ie, out of the mountains) results in a significant change in climate due to altitude, while movement north or south changes conditions due to latitude. (Jared Diamond, in his excellent Guns, Germs and Steel, theorizes that the east-west axis of Eurasia facilitated the spread of crop species, while the north-south arrangement of the Americas discouraged it.)

Whatever the reason, it's really too bad more of them haven't made it to our grocery stores. In addition to the cherimoya, and bunch of indigenous relatives of things like blackberries and blueberries, there are dozens of other species waiting to be discovered by world markets. And now, thanks to the wonder that is the global shipping infrastructure (which I must admit to having blamed for the decline of many crops in the past), there's no immediate need for these crops to be grown outside of their narrow range, though many are, and with a little breeding effort many more probably could be.

A few are beginning to find both markets and production areas outside of the region. The ugni (Myrtus ugni or Ugni molinae, depending on which authority you believe) has been found well-adapted to the moderate climates of New Zealand and Tasmania, both of which have found more market-friendly names for it ("New Zealand Cranberry" and "Tazziberry", respectively, though I still prefer the original or "Chilean Guava" over both of those and the book's favorite, "murtilla"). I haven't seen it in the U.S., but apparently there is a growing demand in Japan. The cherimoya, it seems, is finding is finding its way to American markets, and the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is becoming a valuable crop in East Africa and Southeast Asia.

The other means by which these little-known species could have an impact is as breeding material for crossing with the established temperate crops. Several promising Rubus species could be crossed with blackberries and raspberries (the results of such work so far have been disappointing), and the capuli cherry (Prunus capuli) might have potential in the breeding of the various stone fruits, though that research has scarcely been attempted to date. The highland papaya and the various native blueberries might also contribute useful features to their respective relatives.

I'm probably a little more fixated on fruit than some people (okay, almost all people), but it makes me bizarrely happy to think about all the hundreds of fruit species out there that I have yet to try, and that science has yet to try to understand. There's so much variety out there, and we've only just seen the tip of the iceberg (this doesn't just apply to fruit, of course). And I think that's pretty cool.

(And no, that wasn't intended as a bad play on 'iceberg'. I just think it's cool.)


At 11/13/2011 09:41:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

plese check it :) Suzuki Starterbinary options trading

At 11/16/2011 02:10:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

and here :)
gifts for godparents at christeningDeal Tracking

At 11/22/2011 09:07:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

hay vai ca lon :))
organic superfoodsWeight Loss Surgery

At 11/26/2011 06:17:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

hay lam vao disilver charmsSex Toys

At 11/30/2011 04:48:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Gary Andrew Speed, MBE (8 September 1969 – 27 November 2011) was a Welsh football player and manager. He was captain of the Wales national football team until he retired from international football in 2004 and he remains the most capped outfield player for Wales and the second overall, having appeared 85 times at senior level between 1990 and 2004, playing mainly as a left-side attacking midfielder.
Speed played professionally for Leeds United, Everton, Newcastle United, Bolton Wanderers and Sheffield United. Rarely troubled by injury or suspension, he held the record for the most appearances in the Premier League at 535, until it was surpassed by David James. At the time of his death, only James and Ryan Giggs had played in more Premier League matches than Speed.[2] Including his appearances in The Football League and cup competitions, he made 840 domestic appearances, in addition to 85 full caps at international level. He played in the Leeds United team that won the Football League First Division championship in 1991–92, the year before the FA Premier League was formed. He also played in consecutive FA Cup finals for Newcastle United, losing to Arsenal in 1998 and to Manchester United in 1999.
Speed was appointed manager of Sheffield United in 2010, but he left the club after a few months in December 2010 to manage the Wales national team.
Gold Coast Propertysalle mariage

At 12/03/2011 03:31:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire
Find out how families pulled together during the war years to celebrate the festive season with this 1940s thrifty Christmas. The dining room, drawing room and bedrooms will be dressed as they would have been on a 1940s Christmas morning, with relevant music. Activities include make do and mend workshops. Christmas at Hardwick, 3 to 4 December, 11 to 3 pm.
computer problems fixedLatest Movies Download

At 12/03/2011 09:08:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Global stock markets have risen as Europe's leaders called for closer economic integration as the way to ultimately resolve the debt crisis.

US stocks had their best week in more than two years, up 7%. Leading indexes in France, Germany and the UK were all up about 1%.

In a speech to the Bundestag, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Europe was working towards "fiscal union".
pc laptoptop men hair

At 12/11/2011 11:22:00 AM, Blogger Google said...

Upon completion of basic military training, Flowers received a direct to duty assignment as a supply warehouseman at Grand Forks Air Force Base, N.D.
After spending two years at Grand Forks AFB, Flowers was retrained into air transportation and received one of his most difficult assignments of his career -- casualty collection at Da Nang Air Base, Vietnam, in 1968.

In Vietnam, Flowers' primary mission was to haul wounded and deceased soldiers out of the jungle at night.

Upon completion of his tour in Vietnam, Flowers arrived at Norton AFB, Calif., where he met his wife. The two had only been married for two weeks when she received orders to Clark Air Base, Philippines; after six months of separation, he received a joint spouse assignment.
oc cosmetic dentistSexy Lingerie

At 1/01/2012 07:43:00 PM, Blogger Comfort said...


Amazon Australia

At 1/01/2012 07:45:00 PM, Anonymous Coomera Real Estate said...


Buy Watches Online

Nerang Real Estate Agent

At 1/16/2012 08:49:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the United Kingdom's largest metropolitan areas; the Greater Manchester Urban Area has a population of 2.2 million, whilst the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester has an estimated population of 2.6 million.[3] The demonym of Manchester is Mancunian and its local authority is Manchester City Council.
Saturn Radiatorcheap puppy clothing

At 1/30/2012 11:08:00 AM, Blogger Google said...

Cyathus is a genus of fungi in the Nidulariaceae, a family collectively known as the bird's nest fungi. They are given this name since they resemble tiny bird's nests filled with "eggs". The "eggs", or peridioles, are firmly attached to the inner surface of this fruiting body by an elastic cord of mycelia known as a funiculus.
Liebeskummer überwindenanger management classes

At 2/02/2012 02:35:00 AM, Blogger Google said...

Chew Stoke is a small village and civil parish in the Chew Valley, in Somerset, England, about 8 miles (13 km) south of Bristol. It is at the northern edge of the Mendip Hills, a region designated by the United Kingdom as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and is within the Bristol/Bath green belt.
holidays in antiguawaxed canvas messenger bag

At 2/02/2012 02:37:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

The River Chew is a small river in England. It merges with the River Avon after 17 miles (27 km) forming the Chew Valley.
The spring from which the Chew rises is just upstream from Chewton Mendip. The river flows North West from Chewton Mendip through Litton, Chew Valley Lake, Chew Stoke, Chew Magna and Stanton Drew. The river passes under the A37 at Pensford almost making the old church and pub garden into an island.
bean bag shopAssisted Living Pasadena

At 2/02/2012 02:39:00 AM, Blogger Google said...

After several months of negotiations — starting several days after the 2011 NBA All-Star Game — with former basketball agent Jason Levien and managing owner Joshua Harris, Thohir became part of a consortium that would go on to buy the Philadelphia 76ers, an NBA team; the consortium also included actor Will Smith, his wife Jada Pinkett Smith, and Levien
desktop pc dealstop 10 lists

At 2/06/2012 03:39:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Prince Louis of Battenberg (1854–1921) was a German prince related to the British Royal Family. After a career in the United Kingdom's Royal Navy lasting over forty years, in 1912 he was appointed First Sea Lord, the professional head of the British naval service. He took steps to ready the British fleet for combat as World War I began, but his background as a German prince forced his retirement at the start of the war when anti-German feeling was running high.
Jungle tours Ecuadordetox foot bath

At 2/07/2012 08:47:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

The Great Baltimore Fire raged in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, on Sunday, February 7, and Monday, February 8, 1904. 1,231 firefighters were required to bring the blaze under control. It destroyed a major part of central Baltimore, including over 1,500 buildings covering an area of some 140 acres (0.57 km2).
One reason for the fire's duration was the lack of national standards in fire-fighting equipment. Although fire engines from nearby cities (such as Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. as well as units from New York City, Virginia, Wilmington, and Atlantic City) responded, many could not help because their hose couplings could not fit Baltimore's hydrants.
migrainehair again

At 2/07/2012 09:11:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Super Bowl XLVI was an American football game between the American Football Conference (AFC) champion New England Patriots and the National Football Conference (NFC) champion New York Giants to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 2011 season. Each team was vying for its fourth Super Bowl victory. The Giants beat the Patriots 21–17. The game was televised by NBC. Super Bowl XLVI was the 46th annual championship game of the modern-era NFL and was played at Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, Indiana.
r4i 3dscar insurance comparison

At 2/10/2012 11:42:00 AM, Blogger tung said...

Big Butte Creek is a 12-mile (19 km) long tributary of the Rogue River located in the U.S. state of Oregon. It drains approximately 245 square miles (630 km2) of Jackson County. The north fork of the creek begins on Rustler Peak and the south fork's headwaters are near Mount McLoughlin. They meet near Butte Falls, and Big Butte Creek flows generally northwest until it empties into the Rogue River about 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Lost Creek Dam (William L. Jess Dam). Big Butte Creek's watershed was originally settled over 8,000 years ago by the Klamath, Upper Umpqua, and Takelma tribes of Native Americans.
vestido de noviabusiness travel bags

At 9/24/2012 03:40:00 PM, Anonymous Gwendolyn said...

Oh my god, there's a great deal of helpful information here!

At 10/09/2015 07:09:00 AM, Blogger Zheng junxai5 said...

2015-10-10 zhengjx
Ralph Lauren UK Sale Polo Shirts
ugg boots
Up To 70% Off Air Retro Jordan 8s
coach factory outlet
Cheap Toms Shoes Outlet Sale Clearance
Louis Vuitton Handbags Factory Outlet
Michael Kors Outlet USA Store
Louis Vuitton Handbags Outlet Online
Air Jordan 4 Retro Free Shipping
coach outlet online
michael kors outlet
louis vuitton
Official Cheap Michael Kors Handbags Outlet
New Jordans Cheap For Sale
ralph lauren uk
tory burch outlet
ugg boots
ray-ban sunglasses
Michael Kors Outlet Stores Online
ugg boots
louis vuitton outlet
ugg boots
louis vuitton outlet
canada goose jackets
michael kors outlet
cheap uggs sale
toms shoes
canada goose jackets
uggs outlet
michael kors outlet

At 12/30/2015 12:59:00 AM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

ninest123 12.30
prada handbags, tory burch outlet, louis vuitton, polo ralph lauren outlet, louboutin outlet, ray ban sunglasses, louis vuitton outlet, louis vuitton, louis vuitton outlet, longchamp outlet, replica watches, christian louboutin outlet, louboutin shoes, jordan shoes, longchamp outlet, polo ralph lauren outlet, replica watches, michael kors outlet, ray ban sunglasses, louis vuitton, michael kors outlet, nike free, michael kors outlet, burberry, longchamp, cheap oakley sunglasses, gucci outlet, ugg boots, michael kors outlet, michael kors, ugg boots, oakley sunglasses, ray ban sunglasses, nike air max, ugg boots, uggs on sale, tiffany and co, michael kors outlet, oakley sunglasses, prada outlet, tiffany jewelry, burberry outlet online, oakley sunglasses, ugg boots, nike air max, nike outlet, louboutin, chanel handbags, oakley sunglasses

At 12/30/2015 01:01:00 AM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

north face, nike roshe, vans pas cher, replica handbags, air force, timberland, lululemon, sac longchamp, ralph lauren pas cher, vanessa bruno, hollister pas cher, true religion jeans, air jordan pas cher, true religion jeans, nike huarache, hermes, true religion outlet, hollister, michael kors, nike air max, michael kors, nike blazer, michael kors, ralph lauren uk, longchamp pas cher, hogan, lacoste pas cher, true religion jeans, nike trainers, mulberry, michael kors, nike free, oakley pas cher, louboutin pas cher, longchamp, north face, nike roshe run, coach outlet, new balance pas cher, ray ban uk, ray ban pas cher, abercrombie and fitch, tn pas cher, nike air max, sac guess, nike air max, air max, burberry, converse pas cher, nike free run uk, coach purses

At 12/30/2015 01:04:00 AM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

louboutin, reebok shoes, s5 cases, valentino shoes, iphone 5s cases, herve leger, gucci, beats by dre, ralph lauren, instyler, vans shoes, new balance, wedding dresses, north face outlet, nike roshe, hollister, nike air max, mac cosmetics, ray ban, abercrombie and fitch, ferragamo shoes, nike air max, p90x workout, jimmy choo shoes, insanity workout, ghd, lululemon, mont blanc, converse, asics running shoes, nfl jerseys, iphone 6s cases, birkin bag, bottega veneta, iphone 6 plus cases, baseball bats, vans, soccer shoes, north face outlet, iphone 6 cases, celine handbags, hollister, soccer jerseys, oakley, iphone cases, giuseppe zanotti, chi flat iron, timberland boots, mcm handbags, ipad cases, babyliss, iphone 6s plus cases

At 12/30/2015 01:06:00 AM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

links of london, moncler, ugg pas cher, sac louis vuitton pas cher, moncler, louis vuitton, bottes ugg, canada goose, moncler, pandora charms, marc jacobs, canada goose, supra shoes, karen millen, canada goose outlet, barbour, doke gabbana outlet, montre pas cher, canada goose, pandora jewelry, hollister, pandora charms, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, canada goose uk, louis vuitton, moncler, coach outlet, pandora jewelry, doudoune canada goose, juicy couture outlet, thomas sabo, ugg boots uk, barbour jackets, louis vuitton, moncler, toms shoes, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, replica watches, swarovski, moncler outlet, canada goose, swarovski crystal, lancel, moncler, wedding dresses, juicy couture outlet, louis vuitton, canada goose outlet, moncler, converse outlet
ninest123 12.30

At 7/26/2016 12:58:00 AM, Blogger xjd7410@gmail.com said...

polo outlet
the north face outlet
nike trainers uk
louis vuitton outlet
michael kors outlet online
burberry bags
louis vuitton outlet online
adidas nmd
toms wedges
michael kors outlet
celine bags
michael kors outlet online sale
coach outlet
michael kors outlet
louis vuitton outlet
louboutin shoes
ray ban sunglasses
coach outlet store online clearances
michael kors ukt
louis vuitton handbags
nike uk
nike sb janoski
replica watches
adidas running shoes
gucci outlet
lebron 12
christian louboutin outlet
cheap toms
ralph lauren polo

At 8/22/2016 04:26:00 AM, Blogger 艾丰 said...

louis vuitton handbags
nike trainers
ugg outlet
fitflops sale
cheap mlb jerseys
hollister canada
coach outlet
coach outlet
cheap nba jerseys
michael kors outlet
chicago blackhawks
ugg outlet
christian louboutin outlet
juicy couture tracksuit
ugg boots
oakley sunglasses
hermes birkin
longchamp pliage
cheap ugg boots
herve leger dresses
ugg boots
nike blazer pas cher
true religion jeans
michael kors outlet online
herve leger outlet
basketball shoes
nike roshe run shoes
michael kors outlet online
giuseppe zanotti shoes
coach outlet store
michael kors outlet clearance
ralph lauren polo shirts
supra shoes sale

At 12/28/2016 10:06:00 PM, Blogger Gege Dai said...

louis vuitton outlet stores
cheap oakley sunglasses
ferragamo outlet
ugg outlet
polo ralph lauren
instyler ionic styler
christian louboutin outlet
louis vuitton handbags
louis vuitton handbags
nike huarache

At 1/12/2017 04:04:00 PM, Blogger OGUDUGU SPELL CASTER said...

I want to express myself to the world and tell them about the great thing that Dr.Ogudugu whose contact details are +2348142250751, greatogudugu@gmail.com or http://greatdrogudugusolutiontemple.webs.com/, Dr.Ogudugu was the great man that brought back my lover to me within the period of 48hours and the amazing thing was that Dr.Ogudugu never asked me for anything in return i only paid for the items he used in casting the spell and that was all. As i am writing now my lover is still with me treating me with care and showing me so much love thanks to Dr.Ogudugu. My name is Ana and i am from Los Angeles in USA.

At 3/17/2017 12:37:00 PM, Blogger marko said...

In current circumstances, the interest for awful credit individual advances has been on the ascent. This can be ascribed to the way that the economy has not been great. This combined with the way that product costs have been on the ascent has prompted to the vast majority having an awful record, which successfully keeps them out of getting credits. https://www.usapaydayloanstore.com/chicago

At 5/16/2018 01:09:00 AM, Blogger harish sharma said...

lucky patcher

At 5/16/2018 01:09:00 AM, Blogger harish sharma said...

lucky patcher

At 6/08/2018 11:07:00 PM, Blogger Fghkfhk Dfgaert said...

polo ralph lauren
swarovski crystal
salomon shoes
adidas soccer shoes
prada outlet
jeep shoes
ugg outlet
canada goose outlet
uggs outlet
chicago blackhawks jerseys

At 6/27/2018 11:19:00 PM, Blogger jeje said...

polo ralph lauren
coach outlet
pandora charms
coach factory outlet
ecco outlet
snapbacks wholesale
true religion jeans
louboutin shoes
basket nike femme

At 7/02/2018 05:48:00 AM, Blogger Yaro Gabriel said...


a bathing ape
soccer jerseys
tory burch outlet
nike shoes
pandora charms
yeezy boost
air jordan shoes
oakley sunglasses
ralph lauren polo
adidas nmd

At 7/05/2018 02:23:00 AM, Blogger 4565 said...

0705jejeskechers shoes
cheap snapbacks
snapbacks wholesale
soccer boots
soccer shoes
super dry
superdry clothing
supreme clothing
supreme shirt
supreme clothing
supreme shirt
supreme new york
supreme outlet
tods outlet
tods shoes

At 7/23/2018 03:42:00 AM, Blogger Pansys Silvaz said...

hawks jerseys
mont blanc pens
christian louboutin outlet
ugg boots
ferragamo shoes
ray ban sunglasses
true religion jeans
suns jerseys
barbour jackets
ray ban sunglasses

At 10/29/2018 03:26:00 AM, Blogger zzyytt said...

golden goose slide
adidas yeezy
cheap jordan shoes
coach outlet
tory burch outlet
pure boost
adidas outlet
jordan 12
yeezy boost


Post a Comment

<< Home