.comment-link {margin-left:.6em;}

Fruit Blog Header.jpg
APPLES - BRAMBLES - CITRUS - GRAPES - NUTS - PAWPAWS - PEARS - PERSIMMONS - STONE FRUITS - STRAWBERRIES - FORUM

Cherimoya
My cherimoya, shortly before it became smoothie fodder.

Archive of past images




AppleBorovinka


Chinquapin

Recent Cultivar Releases
Pomegranate

Current Work in Pomology

StrawbParkerEarle


QuinceBourgeat


Atom Feed

Powered by Blogger

Add to Technorati Favorites

March 20, 2005

Triploid Apples

Like most higher organisms, apples generally have two sets of chromosomes. This is a useful arrangement, providing each gene with a backup, and allowing such helpful features as sexual reproduction. (This ought to be a review of high school biology for most of us, but I assume that for people who don’t deal with this daily, as I do, it may have snuck away to wherever it is my knowledge of trigonometry has gone). The large majority of plants conform to this arrangement (diploid), but the occasional error in cellular mechanics has resulted in an array of species with more than the standard two sets. This phenomenon, called polyploidy, is an important mechanism of evolution, and it exists in many fruit crops.

As long as the number of sets of chromosomes remains even, things can continue to function pretty well (though it’s by no means guaranteed…plants are complex things). Reproduction can occur normally, with each parent contributing half of its complement of chromosomes. Uneven ploidy numbers pose a problem for reproduction, though (three sets of chromosomes doesn’t divide neatly), and as a result such plants are often at least partially sterile.

Since sterility equals no fruit, one would think that apples with three sets of chromosomes (triploids) would be of no value to anyone. While not fully sterile, these trees produce very little viable pollen, and set a fruit on a fairly small proportion of flowers. Yet there are an amzing number of triploid apples. A trip to the grocery store up the road from me would turn up at least two (depending on the time of year), ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Crispin’ (aka ‘Mutsu’). The early American cultivars ‘Tompkins County King’ and ‘Rhode Island Greening’ are both triploid, as are the British apples ‘Bramley’ and ‘Ribston Pippin’ (mentioned in an earlier post). The earliest known triploid apple is ‘Gravenstein’, known as early as the seventeenth century in Denmark, and a popular apple of the colonial era, still grown occasionally today.

The reason why such trees have been popular, despite their obvious problems, is simple: size. Polyploids are generally characterized by larger anatomies, and this includes the fruits. ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Mutsu’ are among the largest apples in commerce today (averaging over 150 grams, with the occasional 300 gram fruit). I, personally, feel these particular apples are often too large, pushing the lower limits of meal-sized, rather than snack-sized, but there are plenty of firm believers in the “bigger is better” school of thought out there.

The fertility problems do complicate things a bit, though. The lower number of viable flowers is rarely an issue (apples produce far more flowers than they could ever actually bear fruit, and normally require thinning anyway), but the lack of viable pollen is an issue. Most apple cultivars are self-sterile, a problem overcome by planting two genotypes, allowing each to pollinate the other. Because triploid apples produce to no viable pollen (or at least very, very little), two other diploid apple cultivars are required (the two diploids pollinate each other, as well as the triploid…if only one diploid is used, it will pollinate the triploid, while remaining unpollinated itself.) And of course, one must also make sure that the three cultivars are all flowering simultaneously. Luckily, years of research has provided growers with a wealth of information on the ploidy of various cultivars as well as their flowering habits, making monster apples a reality with just a little extra orchard planning.

Polyploidy has been a major force in both evolution and breeding, providing both opportunities and difficulties. As some one who works with strawberries (octoploids), ploidy issues are something I spend a lot of time with. Future articles will likely deal with ploidy issues not only of apples and strawberries, but also brambles, blueberries, and stone fruits.

Labels: ,

36 Comments:

At 11/10/2008 11:56:00 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

A very interesting reading. I was searching for a list of triploid apples and you popped up. Great!! I'll be back for sure. I am in Canada, I had about 100 fruit trees once, and I am back at it this summer. I am looking for a cheap source of rootstock in Canada. Know of one?

Meanwhile, come visit our forum, HOMEGROWN GOODNESS, it is becoming the hub of plant explorers, collectors, breeders of all around the world. We have people on all the continents, but are mostly american and canadian ( but it is changing).

A lot of generosity, help and such. I am getting loads scionwood of old heirlooms from Europe this winter, many of us have access to genetic banks.

Come visit, you should enjoy and find like minded buddies.

http://alanbishop.proboards60.com/index.cgi

Thanks, and I hope to see you there,

Michel
aka canadamike

 
At 11/15/2011 06:25:00 AM, Anonymous escorts marbella said...

Well, I do not really suppose this may work.

 
At 1/15/2012 09:49:00 AM, Blogger MANHHIEU said...

I do not really suppose this may work.
Rumahben10 games

 
At 5/28/2013 07:27:00 PM, Blogger Cahaya Mandiri said...


Thanks for writing this. I really feel as though I know so much more about this than I did before. Your blog really brought some things to light that I never would have thought about before reading it.

tips cara agar cepat hamil l CARA BELAJAR BAHASA INGGRIS l the best acne treatment l how to lose weight fast easy
margahayuland l BELAJAR BISNIS ONLINE l tips cepat hamil l how to get rid of acne home remedies l
home remedies for acne l how to cure acne fast l
baju batik modern l toko sepatu online l grosir jam tangan online l
jual jam tangan l toko jam tangan murah peluang usaha online l is acne no more for you l how to get rid of acne naturally
how to clear acne l cure acne naturally
best natural remedies for acne l acne no more l tempat belajar bisnis online
peluang usaha rumahan l cara mendapatkan uang dari internet
makanan sehat agar cepat hamil l penyebab tidak bisa hamil lcara agar cepat hamil


 
At 3/08/2015 04:19:00 AM, Blogger get rid of cellulite said...

Outstanding blog post, I have marked your site so ideally I’ll see much more on this subject in the foreseeable future
bra tape

 
At 7/07/2015 05:18:00 AM, Blogger games unblocked said...

Thanks for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your further write
Signature:
The place to play all unblocked games online. Here you can find every blocked games such as: unblockedgames , unblocked games happy , unblocked games 77 , gmod

 
At 7/08/2015 05:25:00 AM, Blogger Anh Mai said...

Thanks for all your information, Website is very nice and informative content.
Signature:
Versión en facebook en español descargar a los países hablan Español: facebook entrar direto agora , facebook en español para and facebook entrar direto

 
At 7/28/2015 02:02:00 AM, Blogger Kavinder Bisht said...

Happy Friendship Day Images
Top 10 Friendship Day SMS
Funny Friendship Day Images
Happy Friendship Day 2015 Images
Happy Friendship Day SMS
Happy Friendship Day Messages
Friendship Day Gifts Ideas
Happy Friendship Day Sms For Girlfriend
Happy Friendship Day Wallpapers
Happy Friendship Day Wishes
Happy Friendship Day 2015 Messages
Happy Friendship Day HD Wallpapers
Happy Friendship Day HD Images
Happy Friendship Day Sms Wishes
Happy Friendship Day Facebook Cover
Happy Friendship Day Wishes for Boyfriend

 
At 8/04/2015 05:47:00 AM, Anonymous descargar whatsapp gratis said...

And I say also to look at the words, missed unfortunate say one word wrong, it's like letting the flood Hairs tigers tore torturing him descargar whatsapp gratis , unblocked games very nice , free unblocked games online to play , descargar whatsapp , unblocked games 77 , unblocked games online ,

 
At 8/10/2015 04:13:00 AM, Blogger Gerry Kishan said...

Get best Diwali Wishes 2015 wish your friends Happy Diwali 2015, which is on 11th of November this year

Find information about Karva Chauth 2015, why and how it is celebrated in India.


New Year Hindi SMS, New year SmsNew Year wishes, Naya saal mubarak and 2015 Happy New Year SMS in Hindi.

Send and share the best Christmas greetings Christmas quotes to your loved ones and spread lots of Christmas cheer!

New Year SMS Collection, Send Free New year sms 2016New Year SMS to Friends. SMS Collection For Everyone.
Rangoli Designs 2015
http://www.happyfriendshipdayimages.in/independence-day-short-speech-2015-for-students-in-english/

 
At 9/02/2015 08:09:00 AM, Blogger Gerry Kishan said...

Valentine day 2016
Christmas greetings


Bigg Boss 9 Contestants List, Bigg boss season 9 Host, watch Bigg boss 9 watch live 24/7, Bigg boss 9 Winner , Bigg Boss9 News
, Episodes, Votes, Starting Date

 
At 9/14/2015 09:26:00 PM, Blogger games unblocked said...

You topic is very great and useful for us…thank you
kids games online , friv 2 , jogos do friv , juegosjuegos.com , juegos de matar zombbies
, juegos de un show mas

 
At 10/25/2015 11:40:00 PM, Blogger Bella Tran said...

Thanks for such post and please keep
juegos kizi | happy wheels 2 | juegos kizi | agario | agar io | my little pony games | fireboy and watergirl

 
At 11/01/2015 07:55:00 PM, Blogger thị hậu nguyễn said...

I found the perfect place for my needs. Contains wonderful and useful messages. I have read most of them and has a lot of them.
happy wheels
super mario bros
pacman
agario

 
At 11/16/2015 01:11:00 AM, Blogger Sarah Edward said...

Very informative and well written post! Quite interesting and nice topic chosen for the post.

happy new year 2016 greeting cards

 
At 12/03/2015 12:43:00 AM, Anonymous graniet tafelblad said...

I am very much pleased with the contents you have mentioned. I wanted to thank you for this great article.

 
At 12/30/2015 07:18:00 AM, Blogger Happy New Years 2016 Images said...

Happy New Year Messages In English 2016
Happy New Year Wishes SMS 2016
Happy New Year Greetings 2016
Happy New Year Wishes Quotes 2016
Happy New Year 2016 Wallpapers in HD

 
At 1/05/2016 04:45:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Get Powerful tips about acne scars, pimples, Health Tips, weight loss tips, Beauty tips here healthandbeautytips.co.uk

Cool HD Wallpapers

 
At 1/05/2016 04:45:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Valentine Day 2016 - Valentine Day Images, Valentines Day 2016 Quotes, Wishes, SMS, Pictures, Greetings, Messages for Valentine Day 2016 Free Download

valentine day

 
At 1/09/2016 04:29:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

True HD (High Definition ) 100% Desktop Quality Cool Wallpapers

 
At 1/11/2016 12:52:00 PM, Blogger Admin said...

Zakir Naik 2015 Bangla Lecture

 
At 1/14/2016 02:10:00 PM, Blogger Admin said...

Valentine's Day 2016 - Valentine's Day Images, Valentines Day 2016 Quotes, Wishes, SMS, Pictures, Greetings, Messages for Valentine Day 2016 Free Download
valentine's day
valentine's day 2016
valentine's day 2016 Images

 
At 1/16/2016 12:40:00 AM, Anonymous This website said...

This is a nice post in an interesting line of content.Thanks for sharing this article, great way of bring this topic to discussion.

 
At 1/20/2016 03:19:00 AM, Blogger Admin said...

valentines day 2016 or valentines day 2016 - Valentine Day Images, Valentines Day 2016 Quotes, Wishes, SMS, Pictures, Greetings, Messages for Valentine Day 2016 Free Download

 
At 1/25/2016 02:43:00 PM, Blogger admin said...

Father's Day 2016 - Father's Day Images, Father's Day 2016 Quotes, Messages, Pictures, Wishes, SMS, Greetings for Father's Day 2016 Free Download.

 
At 2/22/2016 02:22:00 PM, Blogger Max said...

cool hd wallpapers free download nature wallpaper, Cool Wallpapers and beautiful wallpapers for laptop,Desktop In High Quality Resolutions 1920x1080p,1920x1200,1280x1024 More Size.

 
At 3/25/2016 09:09:00 AM, Anonymous minecraft said...

Very nice. Posts shared useful information and meaningful life, I'm glad to be reading this article and hope to soon learn the next article. thank you
g9g games
a10 games
hopy games
yepi games
kizi games
friv games
4223 games
huz games
kizi new games

 
At 5/01/2016 05:19:00 AM, Anonymous Kizi said...

Busy life circumstances than the current world history. Must try to earn money to support themselves, their families and pay for living.
Mario | Friv | Doraemon Games | Kizi | Yoob Juegos

 
At 5/18/2016 11:20:00 PM, Anonymous y8 games said...

Kizi , Pou Games , Dora games , K7x , Toon Games , Y8 , K6x

 
At 5/19/2016 03:42:00 AM, Anonymous Head Soccer said...

The Head Soccer Big Head Soccer synthetic Big Head Football games famous. on head soccer you could be playing head soccer unblocked , big head basketball or Big Head Soccer Head Soccer Big Head Soccer soccer heads Big Head Football big head basketball big head basketball are games is our top. Rejoice with Head Soccer Big Head Soccer Big Head Football Big Head Football big head basketball offline
Tiny Tanks is a popular game that all of you would like. In which you can play Tiny Planes, Run 3 Unblocked Run 4 Unblocked Hacked unblocked Games. Or you can go to play Tiny Planes Tiny Planes Beta
Run 3 Unblocked
Run 4 Unblocked
Run Unblocked
Car Racing Games
Super Mario Unblocked.
Donkey Kong Unblocked.

 
At 5/20/2016 05:06:00 AM, Anonymous Fynsy said...

FynsyGames Best Girls Games for all! Play Free Online Games: Frozen, Makeover and make up games, beautiful dress up games, baby and pet care games, decoration games and many more. Fynsy

 
At 5/23/2016 09:32:00 PM, Anonymous Yoob said...

The reason that I as a military leader have a problem with pay day loan shops is that those shops know that they can leverage the Soldiers' chain of command to help them recoup their loans.
Mario , Friv , Doraemon Games , Kizi , Yoob

 
At 5/27/2016 04:29:00 AM, Anonymous Pou Games said...

Thanks so much for you! K7x , Toon Games , Y8 , K6x

 
At 6/03/2016 06:37:00 PM, Blogger Alice Denny said...

Welcomes to google underwater keep sharing such ideas in the future as well. google mirror this was actually what i was looking for,and i am glad to came here!
elgoog Hi! I’ve been reading your blog for a while google gravity I want you to thank for your time of this wonderful read!!! google terminal now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give youu a shout out from Austin Texas!
google pacman Just wanted to tell you keep up the fantastic work!my weblog: google guitar I definately enjoy every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff of your blog a must read blog! google snake
Amazing insight you have on this, Happy wheels it's nice to find a website that details so much information about different artists... Age of war 2 This article always blew me... Earn to die For how many times I have read this.
slither io
slitherio
big farm

 
At 6/14/2016 11:55:00 PM, Blogger Candy Sim said...

The blog or and best that is extremely useful to keep I can share the ideas
of the future as this is really what I was looking for, I am very comfortable and pleased to come here. Thank you very much.
earn to die 3
Hi! I’ve been reading your blog for a while now and finally got the
courage to go ahead and give youu a shout out from
earn to die 6
Austin Texas! Just wanted to tell
earn to die 5
Hi! I’ve been reading your blog for a while now and finally got the
happy wheels
strike force heroes
slitherio
you keep up the fantastic work!my weblog
earn to die 5
good game empire
tank trouble 2
game earn to die

 
At 6/15/2016 05:45:00 AM, Blogger Regina Hilary said...


The war between humans, orcs and elves continues. Lead your race through a series of epic battles, using your crossbow to fend off foes and sending out units to destroy castles. Researching and upgrading wisely will be crucial to your success!
age of war 3 | age of war 2 | unfair mario 2 | tank trouble 3 | tank trouble
The game controls are shown just under . Movement mechanisms primarily include acceleration and tilting controls.
cubefield | tank trouble | happy wheels | slitherio | gold mine

 

Post a Comment

Links to this post:

Create a Link

<< Home